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Equipment Maintenance Strategies, Preventive, Predictive Maintenance and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Articles
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Articles on Equipment Maintenance Strategies and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

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2001 Maintenance Task Selection survey results Describes the results of the 2001 survey, run by the Plant Maintenance Resource Center, covering the methods that organizations use to select appropriate PM tasks.
A Survey On Condition Monitoring Systems In Industry This article written by Philip A. Higgs, Rob Parkin, Mike Jackson, Amin Al-Habaibeh, and Jo Coy was first presented at ESDA 2004, 7th Biennial ASME Conference Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, and is kindly reproduced here with the permission of ASME. For more information on ASME's publications, please visit ASME's Digital Store at for further information on its publications.. Advances in networking technologies are opening integration opportunities for Condition Based Monitoring (CBM) systems, presenting further possibilities for increasing CBM system functionality. This paper presents the results of a CBM Survey designed to determine present applications of CBM systems within industry. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Adjustments - Friend or Foe Adjustments are an excellent way to get an equipment set up to standard (ie. Manufacturers specification). They also, however, can be used very effectively to get equipment out of standard. How many times have we seen a situation at shift change where an operator takes over a machine or a line and the first action they take is to change settings even though the machine has been performing well over the previous shift? How many times have we walked past equipment where guards on machine components have nuts missing, holes in machine frames where something should be or places where things should be attached and are not? Were these issues deliberately left like this or have things gone missing and we just don’t know where or why they have.So what can be done to overcome these issues? - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Analysis: RCM Versus RCA There is a basic but very real misconception concerning the roles of RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) and RCA (Root Cause Analysis) in today’s operating facility. This is due primarily to the fact the most people think that the two programs do virtually the same thing - nothing could be further from the truth.
Application of Risk Based Inspection to Inspection Planning An RBI programme must include updating from results of inspections, monitoring and process changes and will specify an inspection requirement and frequency. The inspection requirement may be satisfied by a number of alternative inspection methods. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Applying the Predictive Approach From New Standard Institute
Basic Overview of RCM Based Approach for Motor Management Programs Electric motor systems are the primary drivers of all industrialized nations. The application of a motor management program is necessary for bottom-line profits in all industrial facilities and commercial buildings. A key consideration for the development of these motor management programs is ensuring that it is the most cost effective program possible. The use of combined Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) based and a follow-up Backfit RCM based program, for continuous improvement, is an outstanding process for achieving this goal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the application and implementation of an electrical RCM/backfit RCM based program designed to guide the user in the development and continuous improvement of a motor management and motor diagnostics program and not to discuss the details of the processes.
Best practice for risk based inspection as a part of plant integrity management The report considers the application, data requirements, team competencies, inspection plan (including NDT techniques and reliability) and overall management of the RBI process. An audit tool is given in the appendices in order to assist the evaluation of the RBI process.
Best Practice Maintenance Strategies for Mobile Equipment
Building a PM Program - Brick by Brick From New Standard Institute
Captured by Data When maintenance policy designers begin to develop a management program they are almost always confronted with a lack of reliable data to base their judgments on. How do we make use of the data stored in our Enterprise Asset Management Systems?
Checking Best Practices for Preventive Maintenance Here are a few key elements that have been extracted from our program of Current Best Practices (CBP) along with test questions and best practice (BP) examples to help you gauge how well your plant practices measure up
Checking Best Practices for Preventive Maintenance Visiting plants in different corners of the world, we often are asked: “What are the current best practices for preventive maintenance (PM)?” We usually answer that we define preventive maintenance using 95 key elements. We also point out, to some people’s dismay, that there is no single silver bullet for improving PM, but rather many combined efforts will be required to eventually yield results.
CMMS -- Integrating Real-Time Information for CBM Industry Pacesetters use real-time equipment data to prioritize and optimize their maintenance resources. The process is straightforward in concept: simply use real-time data to determine the equipment health, but only inform the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) when maintenance is actually necessary. From there, the CMMS automatically produces the work-order and uses the workflow that is already familiar to all Maintenance personnel. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
CMMS and Preventive Maintenance A very important part of a cost-effective preventive maintenance program is route-based activity
Condition Based Maintenance and Performance Discusses performance related issues in the development of CBM strategies
Condition Based Maintenance For Coal Handling Plant Of Thermal Power Stations How one power station has implemented Condition Based Maintenance to detect the onset of a degradation mechanism thereby allowing casual stresses to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component physical state. Guidelines for implementation of Condition Based Maintenance in Coal Handling Plants are also discussed in this paper. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Condition Based Maintenance for improving Power Plant Economics States the case for improved use of Condition Based Maintenance in the Indian Power Industry - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Condition Monitoring in the 21st Century This article outlines some of the key business opportunities and issues which are driving change in the industry, summarises some of the resulting trends, and then draws some conclusions regarding the implications of these trends for Condition Monitoring equipment manufacturers and suppliers, Condition Monitoring contractors, and organisations employing Condition Monitoring techniques
Condition Monitoring of Steam Turbines by Performance Analysis The paper outlines with some examples some condition monitoring techniques which have contributed to running some large machines for up to 17 years without opening high pressure sections
Condition Monitoring Performance Objectives: Key To Improvement Certification of vibration analysts has been one of Canadian Machinery Vibration Association’s (CMVA) functions for many years. Questions remain, however
Condition Monitoring Survey Results of a survey conducted by Philip Higgs, Research Student at Loughborough University, UK
Condition-Based Maintenance at Southern California Edison
Crow/AMSAA Reliability Growth Plots The key objectives of this paper are to explore the Crow/AMSAA model and its use in monitoring and projecting reliability growth or performance of existing plant and apply this technique to the main unit failures of Meridian Energy’s generating system, allowing confirmation of reliability improvement, those improvements to be quantified, correlation of operational events against reliability, and forecast of failure rates. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Determining the Frequency of Condition Monitoring tasks A discussion thread from the plantmaint discussion forum
Developing PMs for Hydraulic Systems We often accept hydraulic system failure as normal and use resources preparing for failure rather than deciding not to accept hydraulic failure as the norm and strive to eliminate it. In 1980, Kendall Co. changed their focus from reactive to proactive maintenance and practically eliminated unscheduled hydraulic failure - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Development of an RCM Program The implementation of a Reliability Centered Maintenance or RCM program begins with a solid and practical Preventive Maintenance (PM) program
Diagnosing a Low-Speed Gearbox Problem: A PREDICT/DLI Case History - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Do You Listen When Your Equipment Speak to You Do you listen to your motors complaining about overload? Do you see your pump packings crying a flood? Do you hear you bearings whine about contaminated lubricants? Do you notice your steam system that coughs excessive condensate and it’s complains about strained elbows?
Economics of Risk Based Inspection and Maintenance RBI/RBM Operators frequently spend too much of their time on evaluation of alternative risk assessment methods while neglecting the equally important tasks of getting the organisation ready for RBI and inspection planning. In the worst cases this results in an expensive report from the RBI contractor sitting on a shelf while inspection continues as "business as usual". Management must support the scope of full implementation. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Economics of Risk Based Inspection Systems in Offshore Oil and Gas Production The application of Risk Based Inspection has an economic impact on Oil and Gas production. The impact is generally positive but the outcome depends on the starting point of the previous inspection programme. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Enhancing Your Predictive Maintenance Program with Condition Monitoring Instituting a full-featured predictive maintenance program using condition monitoring (also known as CM) can help minimize unwelcome surprises, yielding an impressive ROI.
Equipment Maintenance Plans Planned maintenance has to begin with a plan in mind. Developing preventive maintenance tasks or procedures for your plant or facility without a solid plan will result in inconsistent and unreliable procedures. Because it is important to document the development process, build-in consistency, and develop a good understanding of expected results, the Equipment Maintenance Plan is a powerful tool. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
EXAKT reduces failures at Canadian Kraft Mill In 2005, the Toronto based CBM Lab collaborated with a Canadian kraft pulp mill operator to investigate the high incidence of unpredicted failures among a small group of its fleet of Gould pumps. EXAKT, developed by the University of Toronto’s CBM Lab (Condition-Based Maintenance Laboratory), is an advanced failure prediction software package. By analyzing the pump failures, EXAKT provided a statistical decision tool to accurately predict whether the mill could continue to run the pump until the next shutdown. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Examining the processes of RCM and TPM What do they acahive, and are the two processes compatible? - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Functions and Failures The concept of functions and failures in modern maintenance management is very important. You may already be familiar with Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA), since it is a well-documented and established technique. However when used as a tool in to determine maintenance through RCM, the difference in the two basic approaches to FMEA need to be understood
Getting the Most from Predictive Maintenance
Getting the Most from Predictive Maintenance There are dozens of predictive maintenance technologies, and some have become standards in many industries. Those "standard" technologies include vibration analysis, ultrasound, oil analysis, wear-particle analysis, and thermography. Following are descriptions of the ways maintenance professionals have traditionally used these predictive technologies as well as applications you may not have considered
Hidden Treasure: Eliminating Chronic Failures Can Cut Maintenance Costs Up to 60% courtesy of Reliability Center, Inc.
How Good Is Your PM Program? Here is a method for scoring the effectiveness of a preventive maintenance program
How To Lube Up Your FMEA Process Get specific about lubrication related problems to step up reliability and achieve lubrication excellence
Identifying Failure Modes Retrospectively Using RCM Data Managers are constantly being told that the quality of data is insufficient for producing reliable results from business models. Reliability analysis is no exception. In this paper, the authors show that it is possible to retrospectively improve the quality of failure histories stored in computerised maintenance management systems (CMMS). - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Increasing the Reliability of a System
Increasing the reliability of a system doesn't necessarily mean spending big bucks or relying on high technology
Information and Power in your Hands; Data Collectors Meet Mobile Computing With the advent of high volume, low cost mobile computers and the adoption of digital audio technology, we are now seeing the introduction of the "third generation" data collector. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Information Everywhere - Connectivity in the Future of Predictive Maintenance - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Integrating CMMS with Predictive Maintenance Software - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Integrating In-Service High Density AST Bottom Scanning Into Risk Based Inspections The development of risk based inspection (RBI) methodologies for assessing the integrity of aboveground storage tanks (AST) is providing tank owners with an alternative to conventional inspection methods. The publication of API 580 and the availability of new, unique RBI tools are opening up new avenues for assessing the integrity of AST’s. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Integrating RCM with Effective Planning and Scheduling
Integrating Vibration, Motor Current, and Wear Particle Analysis with Machine Operating State for On-line Machinery Prognostics/ Diagnostics Systems (MPROS) - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Introduction to RCM by John Moubray
Is Preventive Maintenance Necessary?
Is RCM the Right Tool for You? This article is part of the Reliability Handbook, originally published by PEM magazine in Canada. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Maintaining Substation Reliability This article, contributed by Joe Nichols and Bob Matusheski of Meridium, Inc. outlines how one electric utility used Reliability Centered Maintenance principles to develop asset management strategies for their electrical substations. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Maintenance Management - A New Paradigm by John Moubray - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Maintenance Method For Critical Equipments Of Coal Handling Plant Developing a special method for maintenance of Critical Equipments is necessary for improving maintenance quality and reducing operating costs. The combination of corrective preventative and condition based maintenance will required to apply for Critical Equipments. This type of maintenance policy and strategy will improve performance of CHP through availability of Critical Equipment. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Maintenance Program Reduces Pulp Loss at Fletcher Challenge Canada At Fletcher Challenge Canada’s Crofton, B.C., pulp mill, a preventive maintenance program stressing teamwork helps avoid breakdowns
Maintenance Strategies: Ending Red Time The role of the maintenance technician has evolved over the past century. Many years ago, teams would only be relied on to fix a machine when it broke. This approach is known as "reactive maintenance." Even today, this approach is very common mainly because many companies just can't catch up to do the types of things they know would actually increase reliability and decrease downtime. Instead, they only attack the immediate need of the production floor. In many cases, there is not enough time or resources to engage in preventative, proactive practices.
Maintenance Task Selection This 4 part summary from the plantmaint Maintenance discussion forum discusses alternative approaches to Maintenance task selection, including RCM, PM Optimisation (PMO), RCMCost, and others - it also touches on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
Making PM really work for you
Making PM Really Work for You
Management aspects on Condition Based Maintenance While this article draws on experience within the Maritime industry, it is equally relevant to most organizations today. Does the following excerpt sound like your organisation? "Condition monitoring has been introduced...with limited or no success. In most of these cases the condition-monitoring tool has been purchased without considering the necessary change of the organisation...and the need for an organised knowledge transfer." If so, read more - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Managing Availability for Improved Bottom-Line Results: Part II Closing the gaps between the types of availability in a cost-effective way makes the plant more successful. It requires a thorough understanding of the top-level factors that determine availability and finding ways to improve in each aspect of those factors
Mathematical Aspects of Reliability-Centered-Maintenance The original document prepared by HL Resnikoff, which outlines what has now been termed "the Resnikoff conundrum" - that using statistical data to determine the most appropriate failure management policy requires failure statistics - but the existence of failure statistics indicates that the current preventive maintenance program is ineffective. Which leads to the interesting observation that "in order to prevent failures (using statistical methods), we have to allow the equipment to fail". But there is much more also in this 90 page report. WARNING - this is a 4 MB download. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
MCM : A New Technology in Predictive Maintenance MCM (Motor Condition Monitor) is a device that has the capability of detecting impending mechanical and electrical failures in motors and motor based systems at the early stages of fault development. The experimental modelling technology used in MCM can automate fault detection and prevent unplanned machine failures. The paper describes the technology and presents the results of experiments that were done to prove the capability of the MCM device in fault detection
Measure Field Reliability with Statistics Misunderstandings about what reliability is and which data is necessary to measure it limit the value of reliability statistics. This article describes reliability prediction and estimation from data required by generally accepted accounting principles.
Megger on the Move!
Motor Predictive Maintenance Motor PDM is essential for plant reliability and only by developing a comprehensive plan to make sure all possible failure modes are checked on a routine basis will improved reliability be obtained. The first step is to determine the Reliability Basis for each motor and what technologies are going to be applied. Once the RB is determined all the tasks defined must be applied by qualified personnel and acted upon accordingly. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Optimizing Condition Based Maintenance This article is part of the Reliability Handbook, originally published by PEM magazine in Canada. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Optimizing Time Based Maintenance This article is part of the Reliability Handbook, originally published by PEM magazine in Canada. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
PdM Technology Integration Extends Planning Capability
Plant Maintenance Strategy: Key For Enhancing Profitability Proper maintenance of plant equipment can significantly reduce the overall operating cost, while boosting the productivity of the plant. Although many management personnel often view plant maintenance as an expense, a more positive approach in looking at it is to view maintenance works as a profit center. The key to this approach lies in a new perspective of proactive maintenance approach.
Practical Condition Monitoring This article series explores sample business processes that need to be implemented in order to improve overall plant reliability. In parts one and two, equipment life-extending activities were detailed. This article will touch on elements of condition monitoring
Predict Future Failures Crow/AMSAA reliability growth plots use failure information from maintenance systems to provide a visual tool, with straight-line graphs, for predicting the next failure in systems where humans can influence the results. C/A plots work well with single failure or mixed failure modes. In this article, Paul Barringer from Barringer & Associates explains how the simple log-log plots have easily calculated statistics to show if failures are increasing, decreasing, or exhibiting no-change in failure rates. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Predictive maintenance for centrifugal pumps Is there a reliable method of introducing a centrifugal pump predictive maintenance program?
Predictive Technology is the Key to Breaking Error Chains It is virtually impossible for one or even a few human errors to cause a random event (significant failure), no matter how dramatic the event. This small statement has a meaning so powerful that it’s hard to believe that we as humans do not take it to heart.
Press maintenance can improve quality, reduce waste Preventive Maintenance strategies for printing presses
Preventive Maintenance II Reasons why your PM program might not always work as well as you would like it to work
Preventive Maintenance III Reasons why your PM program might not always work as well as you would like it to work
Preventive Maintenance Optimization A modern and cost-effective approach to preventive maintenance shows that there is no maintenance cost optimum
Proactive Maintenance Can Yield More Than A 10-Fold Savings Over Conventional Predictive/Preventive Maintenance Programs
RCFA + RCM = Formula for Successful Maintenance When these two approaches are properly combined, they materially enhance operating performance.
RCM & Purac America RCM analysis is a powerful tool to change attitudes and practices for both maintenance and operations personnel. This case study examines how Purac America successfully used RCM to improve high cost, underperforming equipment. Maintenance spend fell from 7% of RAV to 4% of RAV and production increased from 50% to 133% of rated nameplate capacity.
RCM Versus RCA Most people think that the two programs do virtually the same thing - nothing could be further from the truth
Reducing the Cost of Preventive Maintenance - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Reliability by the Numbers Statistical reliability approaches focus your efforts on the failure modes that cost the most money, separating the vital few from the trivial many like a laser-guided missile
Reliability Reality in Process Plants - The Archimedean Leap from the Bathtub This article will explain how Archimedes actions could have been connected to classic failure modes. It goes on to describe experiences on current projects and offer suggestions to improve the reliability of modern process units. More specifically, it will explain and disprove the over-simplification of the graph of Reliability (risk of failure) vs. Time – THE BATHTUB CURVE.
Reliability Revolution Is a new shift in paradigm occurring?
Reliability-Based Maintenance And Condtion Monitoring Network Rail has long recognised that improvements in asset availability obtained through infrastructure renewals must be supported by timely and relevant maintenance interventions if those levels of availability are to be sustained. The West Coast Route Modernisation (WCRM) programme within Network Rail are implementing reliability-based maintenance regimes for key signalling and electrification assets on the route. These regimes are supported by information provided by asset condition-monitoring systems being introduced to the route in parallel. This paper details the basic analysis methodology used to develop such regimes, and explains how opportunities for asset condition-monitoring can be identified - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Reliability-Centered Maintenance and its Meaning to the Oil Analysis Professional
Revitalizing a Preventive Maintenance Program Before 1998, Smurfit-stone, Fernandina Beach only had to be more cost-effective than the one other linerboard mill in its division. Management decided to address the new competitive situation specifically by addressing maintenance operations and costs, and equipment reliability through an improved preventive maintenance program.
Storage Tank Risk Based Inspection Risk Based Inspection / Integrity (RBI) makes use of risk to plan, justify and aid in the assessments of results from inspection, testing and monitoring In paper will origins and basic approaches to RBI will be reviewed. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
The Age of the RCM Analyst The belief that one person has the information required to do an entire RCM analysis alone is a dangerous one and is a concept that can easily lead to a misapplication of the concepts of RCM, or skewed results. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
The Benefits of Predictive Maintenance A-Z
The Failure Dilemma How do I move towards Proaction when I work in such a Reactive environment
The Fuzzy Side of Equipment Reliability
The RCM Analyst - Beyond RCM In order to gain an insight into the potential for change, there is a need to understand the role that the central figures, the RCM Analysts, are trained to fulfil to play within the asset management functions of their companies. Through the intensive focus on knowledge transferral the RCM Analyst method brings about permanent change through changing the way that people think about their physical asset base. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
The RCM Trap Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has its place, but many times mills jump into training programs and attempt to implement this concept long before they are ready for it
The Responsible Custodianship of Physical Assets - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
The Role of the Facilitator in Operational Reliability by José Durán
T-REx - An Alternative Approach to Risk-Based Inspection and Maintenance The Paper outlines the key features which differentiate T-REx from more conventional RBI tools, defines the advantages and applications and offers some case histories. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
U.S. Navy Analysis of Submarine Maintenance Data In 1998 Naval Sea Systems Command activity SUBMEPP (Submarine Maintenance Engineering, Planning and Procurement) developed the capability to generate Age and Reliability curves utilizing maintenance feedback data. This provided the organization a new means to objectively measure the effects of planned maintenance to engineer optimal maintenance plans. After three years of generating Age and Reliability curves, SUBMEPP confirmed that, in the majority of cases, there is no relationship between overhaul time and reliability, thus confirming the broad results obtained by Nowlan and Heap 37 years earlier, in their study of civil aviation aircraft - and which led to the birth of the approach now known as Reliability Centered Maintenance. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Understanding Hidden Failures in RCM Analyses Addressing hidden failure modes is a key aspect for successfully achieving plant reliability
Uptime at Minimum Cost in the Process Industries This paper attempts to share some of the key learning points, realized over a period of twenty years in the Brewing/Paper and Pulp industry with implementation experience at nineteen plants on a wide range of continuous process equipment.
Using an Expert System for Precision Machine Tool Diagnostics: A Case Study - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Using your Parts to indicate needed PM tasks PM is like advertising. You know that ¾ of it is wasted effort. The great challenge is knowing which ¾ should you eliminate?
What is Operational Reliability?
What is Proactive Maintenance?
What is Reliability Centred Maintenance? RCM as a subject has been widely written about and it is not the aim of this paper to provide a detailed account of the process here. Rather, its aim is to provide an introduction to RCM for new users and a quick history for the more experienced.
What it Takes to Make the Climb from Reactive to RCM Plant Services surveyed the degree of implementation of RCM, the prevailing attitude towards it, and the differences between the RCM haves and have-nots.
Where Did All the People Go? The New Case for Condition Monitoring CM and CBM have become key management strategies to deal with the severe shortage of technical staff, something much more than the basic engineering tactics they have been in the past. Successful companies gain strategic advantage by leveraging scarce human resources on value adding activities that enhance equipment reliability in order to maximize production. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Where Is My Data For Making Reliability Improvements? All failure data for plant equipment and processes contains problems with definition of failure, data accuracy, data recording ambiguities, data accessibility, and lack of currency values. This paper argues that these are not reasons for ignoring data - that data analysis puts facts into an action oriented format to focus on making improvements to reduce the cost of unreliability. Finally, it argues that understanding data is helpful, but making cost effective improvements by use of the data is the business objective. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Why RCM is Different - A Case Study The purpose of maintenance is to prevent or mitigate the consequences of failure. Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) is a method that allows to achieve this goal in an effective way.
Why Shaft Misalignment Continues to Befuddle and Undermine Even the Best CBM and Pro-Active Maintenance Programs
Writing the Perfect PM From developing a PM template with example PM template to using RCM tools to determine the frequency of each PM.

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