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Articles on Bearings and Vibration Analysis

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A New Generation of Condition Monitoring And Diagnostic Systems Recently, a major step forward in the development of microprocessor and signal analysis technology has occurred that allows the development of powerful, efficient, and, at the same time relatively in-expensive systems for continuous condition monitoring of different machine parameters
Alignment between the pump and driver In the pump business alignment means that the centerline of the pump is aligned with the centerline of the driver. Although this alignment was always a consideration with packed pumps, it is critical with sealed pumps especially if you are using rotating seal designs where the springs or bellows rotates with the shaft
An Introduction to Time Waveform Analysis This paper examines the limitations of the FFT process and identifies specific applications where enhancing FFT information with time waveform analysis is appropriate. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Are you reaping the benefits from your monitoring system? Many power stations do not benefit from their sophisticated monitoring systems due to lack of expertise. Further, systems are generally over sold by their suppliers, using words such "failure predictions" and "estimating times to failure".
Ball bearing lubrication in centrifugal pumps It turns out that bearings fail for two main reasons: Contamination of the bearing oil by water or moisture or High heat often caused by too much lubrication
Bearing Demodulation / Enveloping Technique A tutorial
Bearing fault detection at low speeds - 3 Case studies
Bearing fit tolerances Bearing Fit tolerance charts
Bearing Knowledge Is Power Bearing Knowledge is Power
Bearing Selection (Dynaroll)
Calculating Bearing Life (Timken)
Centrifugal pump ball bearing seals Bearings are normally lubricated with either oil or grease. Oil mist is another alternative, but recent fugitive emission regulations are making this form of bearing lubrication less desirable
Cepstrum Analysis - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Coal Handling Plant Alignment Standards For Shaft To Shaft Alignment Shaft alignment is a technical skill that is not common in the construction and maintenance professions, but categorized more like a specialty. It requires unique and expensive measurement instruments, some calculation capability, and relies heavily on experience for successful results on heavy, high-speed, or high-temperature machines. At present there are no universally accepted standards that define good results. This paper covers alignment standard for Four-dial indicator method. All these standards are developed only on experience basic which are useful for alignments in Thermal Power Stationís Coal Handling Plants. The goal of these standards is to provide the technician with the recommended approach for the quality alignment. 2.0 - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Common Causes and Cures for Roller Bearing Overheating
Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines
Condition Monitoring in the 21st Century This article outlines some of the key business opportunities and issues which are driving change in the industry, summarises some of the resulting trends, and then draws some conclusions regarding the implications of these trends for Condition Monitoring equipment manufacturers and suppliers, Condition Monitoring contractors, and organisations employing Condition Monitoring techniques
Condition Monitoring of Steam Turbines by Performance Analysis The paper outlines with some examples some condition monitoring techniques which have contributed to running some large machines for up to 17 years without opening high pressure sections
Cost Effective Predictive Maintenance Solutions Vibration Monitoring is a critical component of any sound Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Strategy. Traditionally, data from the vibration sensors is recorded and analyzed using hand-held, walk-around vibration analyzers, or via expensive and elaborate online analysis systems. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Demodulation from June 1999 issue of P/PM. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Determination of Balancing Quality Limits - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Determining Accurate Alignment Targets Part three of a four-part series that will cover alignment fundamentals and thermal growth, and highlight the importance of field measurements through two case studies
Diagnosing a Low-Speed Gearbox Problem: A PREDICT/DLI Case History - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Dynamically balancing the pump rotating components Everyone agrees that balancing the rotating components of a centrifugal pump is a good idea, but it is seldom done.
Effective Monitoring of Cooling Towers A case study in using vibration analysis to monitor cooling towers at a Potash mine in Canada
Effective Preventive Maintenance In 1993, the Skoghall Mill installed extensive on-line equipment for the shock pulse measuring of bearings on Board Machine No. 7 (BM 7). Thanks to this investment, today they can measure,with a focus on wrapping, drying and pressing quantities in the board machine, 1,050 items of stock every 24 hours. Earlier it took between four and six weeks to do the same job. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Effects of Shaft Misalignment On Bearing Life Relatively small amounts of shaft misalignment can have a significant impact on the operational life of bearings. Summary of Maintenance and Reliability Center research notes that a 5-mil offset misalignment can reduce expected bearing life by as much as 50 percent in some cases.
Engine Thrust Bearing Failure
Failure Analysis: Contamination How to diagnose contamination failures in bearings
Failure Analysis: Corrosion How to diagnose corrosion failures in bearings
Failure Analysis: Electrical Fluting How to diagnose electrical fluting in bearings
Failure Analysis: Excessive Load How to diagnose excessive load in bearings
Failure Analysis: False Brineling How to diagnose false brineling in bearings
Failure Analysis: Installation Damage How to diagnose installation damage in bearings
Failure Analysis: Loose Fit How to diagnose loose bearing fit
Failure Analysis: Lubrication How to diagnose lubrication failures in bearings
Failure Analysis: Misalignment How to diagnose misalignment failures in bearings
Failure Analysis: Normal Fatigue Failure How to diagnose normal fatigue failures in bearings
Failure Analysis: Overheating How to diagnose overheating in bearings
Failure Analysis: Preload Failures How to diagnose bearing preload failure
Failure Analysis: Reverse Loading How to diagnose reverse loading in bearings
Failure Analysis: True Brinneling Failures How to diagnose true brinelling
False Brinelling and How to Prevent It
Five Basic Errors in Shaft Alignment Properly aligned shafts will do more to increase bearing, seal, and rotor life than any other single thing you can do after lubrication. Unfortunately, many maintenance departments in smaller plants still think that alignment is only needed for large, high-speed shafts on somebody elseís equipment
Fluid Viscous Damping as an Alternative to Base Isolation
Gas Turbine Rotor Disc Crack The disk crack is seen as a persistent vector change in vibration levels which is quite small in the first instance. Following a return to service the underlying vibration vector had changed and again continued to show a persistent vector change but now with an exponential rate of change
Ground Vibration Measurement - Case Study The origin of this case study was a series of complaints that all the executives sitting in and around the Senior Vice Presidentís office were feeling vibrations on the table as well as on the floor. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
How Unbalance Affects Bearing Life This short paper, from Ahmed M. Al-Abdan, does exactly what it says - describes how unbalance affects bearing life
How Well Do You Know Your Bearings? Use this quick mini-quiz to test your bearing knowledge.
Hydraulic Motor Test Bench - Vibration Analysis Case Study Another vibration analysis case study contributed by Madhusudan.N This time, diagnosis is made of a Hydraulic Motor Test Bench, which is experiencing high levels of vibration. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Integrating Vibration, Motor Current, and Wear Particle Analysis with Machine Operating State for On-line Machinery Prognostics/ Diagnostics Systems (MPROS) - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Intelligent Accelerometers Historically, expert knowledge of vibration analysis was required to start and maintain a vibration-based predictive maintenance program. This white paper, written by Matt Manwiller of ifm efector inc., describes how using intelligent sensors can alleviate the need for vibration experts. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Introduction To Machine Vibration The purpose of this book is to serve as a reference text for the maintenance engineer and technician who are working with state of the art machinery maintenance technology. Broadly speaking, the subject is the principles of vibration theory and analysis as they apply to the determination of machine operating characteristics and deficiencies
Keeping Machinery Alignment Records Keeping Machinery Alignment Records
Let's Integrate Oil Analysis and Vibration Analysis
Machine Vibration Severity Chart Exactly what it says!
Measurement and Analysis A short on-line course
Mechanical vibration and shock
Moisture - The Second Most Destructive Contaminant, And Its Effect On Bearing Life
Mounting of Rolling Bearings
Pilot Exciter Bearing Speed A failure was initially detected when there was a fall in 1st order vibration level. The problem was confirmed by a corresponding increase in higher harmonics. Often this is an indication of a shaft crack. However, in this case the problem was traced to a worn bearing.
Polymer Bearings in Dryer Section Reduce Failures at Graphic Packaging his case study discusses how Graphic Packaging Corp. reduced equipment-related downtime by replacing old journal bearings with new, nonmetallic bearings on one of its two boxboard machines. The switch has resulted in a reduction in the number and frequency of bearing failures - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Power Plant Primer Vibration Monitoring This is written to describe the type of machinery that can be found in a typical fossil fuel (gas, oil or coal-fired) electric generating plant to better understand what type of instrumentation is being used for vibration monitoring
Pump bearings, why do they fail? Most of us change the bearings every time we disassemble the equipment to replace the mechanical seal or the packing sleeve. Is this really a sensible thing to do?
Reducing Bearing Failures Implementing these common sense methods and practices will save time and effort, and lower costs
Reduction of Shock Response Spectra Using Various Types of Shock Isolation Mountings
Reliability Engineering Snapshot - Vibration Subtle changes in a vibration waveform can help pinpoint problems.
Remote LP In-situ Balance This is an example of the benefits in using PROTOR remotely. In this case a return to service was monitored remotely without the expense or inconvenience of a vibration engineer visiting the site.
Resonance Analysis - a Vertical Pump Case Study This article written by Ali Al-Shurafa of Jubail Industrial College in Saudi Arabia describes a vibration analysis case study, examining resonance in a vertical pump used to deliver sea water to a power station's cooling towers. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Reverse Rim Dial vs Rim Face The two most common dial indicator alignment methods are the rim-face and reverse rim dial methods. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Rolling Bearing Fundamentals
Rolling Bearing Shaft and Housing Fits
Rolling Element Bearing Acceptance and Life Testing An interesting (and patented) approach to permit the estimation of the life remaining in Rolling Element bearings - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Setting Turbine Thrust Bearings
Shaft Eccentricity and Bearing Forces A case study from the petrochemical industry, illustrating how vibration analysis was able to detect shaft eccentricity as a result of improper installation. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Shaft To Shaft Alignment By Four-Dial Gage Method For Coal Handling Plant This paper covers Four-dial gage method, which overcome all typical reasons of unsuccessful and difficult alignments, which are observed in Thermal Power Stationís Coal Handling Plants. The goal of this method is to provide the technician with the recommended approach for the quickest way with quality alignment. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Shock Pulse goes Spectrum SPM Instrument AB, Sweden, launches a brand new diagnostic method in connection with Leonovaô, a hand-held machine condition analyzer. Called the SPM Spectrumô, it is the result of an FFT on the time signal recorded with an SPM shock pulse transducer from a rolling element bearing. The individual bearing frequencies (BPI, BPO, 2*B2 and FT) and their harmonics are highlighted in the spectrum. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Signal Processing for Manufacturing and Machine Monitoring National Science Foundation Workshop
Specifying Shaft Alignment Draft standard specifies alignment results, allowing aligner to choose the most appropriate method and instrumentation
Steam Turbine Generator Critical Speed A problem was first identified when high vibration levels during runup began causing the machine to keep running down under automatic control.
Tarrant Regional Water District Satisfies Growing Production Demands Using Advanced Reliability Tarrant's SCADA Operations Manager, Boyd Miller, believed that vibration monitoring be more effective and performed more efficiently if integrated into the SCADA. Therefore, Tarrant partnered with Emerson to implement a centralized online vibration monitoring system for all high-capital equipment
Temperatureís Effects on Mounted Bearings
The Benefits Of Implementing A Vibration Analysis And Equipment Deficiency Program
The Importance of Shaft Alignment
The reasons for premature bearing failure Bearings have no wearable surfaces, they are instead designed to fatigue after many hours of service
Triaxial Vibration Spectral Data - An Important Ingredient for Proper Diagnosis - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Trouble Shooting Accelerometer Installations
Ultrasound for Better Lubrication The use of ultrasound for the proper lubrication of bearings
Understanding Shaft Alignment: Identical Machines Last article of a four-part series covering alignment fundamentals and thermal growth, and highlighting the importance of field measurements through two case studies
Understanding Shaft Alignment: Thermal Growth Part two of a four-part series that will cover alignment fundamentals and thermal growth, and highlight the importance of field measurements through two case studies
Understanding Shaft Alignment:Basics Part one of a four-part series that will cover alignment fundamentals and thermal growth, and highlight the importance of field measurements through two case studies
Using Ultrasound with Vibration Analysis to Monitor Bearings In the past, ultrasound and vibration technologies have been used independently to monitor ball bearings in plant equipment. However, it is becoming more common to use ultrasonic inspection interfaced with vibration analysis to spport predictive maintenance programs for periodic inspection of critical bearings to monitor wear and predict failure
Using Vibration Monitoring Equipment for Other Functions
Various Technical Articles on Vibration Analysis and Bearings
Vibration & Ultrasound Technologies: A Possible Integrated Inspection Tool? The purpose of this paper is to introduce condition monitoring and reliability engineers to the principles of using ultrasound for the assessment of machine condition. Ultrasound can be a complimentary technology to vibration, thermography and lubrication monitoring. It must be emphasized that it is rarely successful as a stand alone technology for effective machine condition assessment and subsequent required maintenance planning. This paper concentrates on the use of airborne ultrasound as a complementary technique particularly for machinery that may be inaccessible due to guards or hazardous locations.
Vibration Analysis and Predictive Maintenance Programs for Large Rotating Equipment This White Paper organizes and presents some facts about machinery vibration analysis and explodes some popular myths.
Vibration Analysis On a Conveyor Drive Unit A Case Study
Vibration Analysis on a Conveyor Drive Unit - A Case History - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Vibration Aspects of Reliability Enhancement via HALT, ESS and HASS What are those acronyms all about? A short on-line course.
Vibration Chart & Formulae
Vibration in a centrifugal pump - causes and cures It is necessary to be interested in vibration because it has a major affect on the performance of your pump
Vibration measurement and diagnosis of valve seat generating machine Another vibration analysis case study contributed by Madhusudan.N This time, diagnosis is made of a Valve Seat Generating machine, which is experiencing problems with manufacturing accuracy, and high levels of vibration. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Vibration Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings There are many various signal processing techniques implemented for the vibration diagnosis of bearings on rotating machines. This short article from Mukesh Shah provides an introduction to three main categories of signal processing techniques: Frequency methods, Time methods or Statistical methods, and Filtering methods applied to time signals. - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Vibration Spectrum Analysis Written in a clear, understandable style, this new edition of Vibration Spectrum Analysis includes valuable information on using the latest techniques of spectrum analysis in solving problems and enhancing machine reliability. Vibration analysts, predictive maintenance specialists, and field mechanics will find it to be a key reference. A book good for both engineers and non-engineers alike - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Voting Thrust Measurements with Other Parameters - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
What is Resonance all about? Why discuss resonance? Because unless resonance is involved, vibration never causes any damage. Also, many people define the study of vibration as the study of resonances. A short on-line course.
White Noise - requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
Why Engine Thrust Bearings Fail

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